Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Otto Rock is unwell

I have a cold, which is hardly life-threatening but seriously takes the edge off the desire to write. Back with you all anon.

Quote of the day....

...is awarded to Colombia's Minister of Mining, Carlos Rodado Noriega, who had this to say about the inflience of narcotraffickers in gold mining sector of Colombia:

"We are certain that the gold business is used in an illegal way to launder assets."

A Flash update...

..went out to subscribers just before the bell this morning. Consider this post belt'n'braces, guys.

Why I think Keiko Fujimori will win the Peru election

Before going any further and to stop my mailbox getting filled up with mails in Spanish that cast allusions on the marital status of my parents at the moment of my conception, I'm not a fan of Keiko and feel no sympathy towards her. Neither am I a fan of Ollanta Humala. In my opinion neither candidate left in the running for the Presidency of Peru will make a good President or be good for their country. Basically, I have no dog in this race. So with that said, why do I think she wins?

1) A high proportion of the undecided votes are in the higher socioeconomic groups. This has been noted by all the polling companies in their recent surveys.

2) In other words, due to the close numbers that the two candidates are polling and the significant percentage of undecideds still out there, those are the people that are left to decide who wins. It's commonly called "the Lima vote" in Peru and the basic idea all through round two has been one of whoever wins Lima, wins the job.

3) Every time Ollanta Humala has made progress in the polls, the Lima Stock Market has suffered. True yesterday, with its 5.17% drop, after the weekend polls showed Humala closing the gap between himself and Keiko Fujimori to within the margin of error on most polls and even holding a slight lead in one of them.

4) The live TV debate was generally viewed as a tie by observers in Peru (bar the rabid supporters on either side of the fight).

5) In the end the middle class in Peru is much like any other middle class around the world. They're obsessed by money and either getting rich or staying rich.

6) It won't have escaped their attention that, so far at least, Humala up = stock market down, their all-important pension fund down, Peruvian Nuevo Sol (PEN) currency down. Neither would it have escaped their attention that Keiko up = indicators positive.

7) For many of these middle class, the idea of announcing that they will vote for another Fujimori is too embarrassing to be made public, but they plan to do it anyway in the privacy of the voting booth. This is the so-called "hidden vote" factor.

8) So all in all, if it's true that the higher socioeconomic levels in Peru have the deciding vote in this election, Keiko Fujimori is in a strong position. This also explains why La Republica this morning, the only serious newspaper in Peru that supports the Humala campaign, is trying to convince its public that investors are calm and relaxed about the Humala manifesto when all evidence points to this as being a total crock.

In other words I think Keiko wins this election because, when push comes to shove, human beings are greedy and self-serving. And money talks, bullshit walks. Sad but true. DYODD.

Charts of the day are....

...the Argentina Peso versus the US Dollar, 12 months...

...and the Brazilian Real versus the US Dollars, 12 months....

After returning from a State visit Charles De Gaulle once famously said about Brazil that, "Ce n'est pas un pais serieux". Just goes to show how times change...or how perhaps he should have visited Buenos Aires on the same trip and got a bit of context.

Monday, May 30, 2011

Problem 610: Intersecting Circles, Radius, Parallel, Common Tangent, Angle, 90 Degrees

Geometry Problem
Click the figure below to see the complete problem 610.

 Problem 610: Intersecting Circles, Radius, Parallel, Common Tangent, Angle, 90 Degrees.

So what does the Peru stock market think of the latest round of opinion polls?

It thinks this:

Down 4.68% in the first three hours of the week, all stocks taking a bath.

A better way of scaring the middle class into voting for Keiko is difficult to imagine. Money talks, BS walks, part 14,392 of a continuting series. Data from here

How good is Tom Tomorrow?

This good.

Get the full page version right here.

Focus Ventures (FCV.v): Jeesh Lobito, is that all you got these days?

Wow, looks like you're losing your touch, dude. Time was when people actually listened to you....


Bear Creek Mining (BCM.v) and protests in Puno: latest

The latest from Puno is that the strike/protest/roadblocks have been suspended by the local protesters in the region, in the words of this report out a couple of hours ago "at least until after the second round Presidential election vote", which is this Sunday June 5th.

The decision to suspend the protest activities was taken this morning, Monday May 30th, by the activists. Apparently there are a couple of roadblocks left in place, but those are expected to be lifted in the next few hours as well.

UPDATE: Interestingly, that report linked above seems to have been pulled by the website. Following the Google feed, there are now conflicting reports on whether the protests will go ahead or whether they'll be suspended today. But either way, BCM.v at Santa Ana isn't going to have a happy time of it. That was explained yesterday in IKN108.

Chart of the day is....

...the US Dollar since 2002.

Strong dollar policy's working, I see.

Man, I just have no idea whatsoever why commodities have been rising in the last decade.

To know more about Crocodile Gold's (CRK.to) Mario property, optioned to Fortuna Silver (FVI.to) today...

...go here for the overview of the 43-101 technical report on the property that was published in 2007

But in summary it's big, under-explored and has already returned very decent drill numbers for zinc, lead and silver. Also, if you check out the MEM resume on environmental matters for the Mario property, you'll find out more about its exact location and see that the locals are welcoming of new mining activity in the area. Overall, it reminds me a lot of Caylloma

Department of Mining: Min-Novation Newsletter

Department of Mining: Min-Novation Newsletter: "Newsletter no 1 April 2011[1] http://mi.ttu.ee/min-novation/"

EUExNet Estonia: EUExNet Newsletter, May 2011

EUExNet Estonia: EUExNet Newsletter, May 2011

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Two charts from IKN108

Just to give you an idea of how important tonight's live TV debate between Ollanta and Keiko is for the presidential election in Peru, with the big vote next Sunday June 5th now just days away:

The IKN Weekly, out now

IKN108 has just been sent to subscribers. Just sayin'

Problem 609: Triangle, Perpendiculars, 90 Degrees, Collinearity

Geometry Problem
Click the figure below to see the complete problem 609.

 Problem 609: Triangle, Perpendiculars, 90 Degrees, Collinearity.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Problem 608: Square with Right Triangles, Metric Relations, Congruence, Measurement

Geometry Problem
Click the figure below to see the complete problem 608.

Problem 608: Square with Right Triangles, Metric Relations, Congruence, Measurement.

Peru Prez Poll: Ollanta ahead, according to Imasen

The latest poll from Imasen and published in La Republica was supposed to be published tomorrow, but it got leaked and so La Republica, on this page, has confirmed the numbers.

According to this poll, Ollanta Humala has a slight lead. We note that the newspaper in question supports the Ollanta Humala campaign (about the only serious paper to do so). Nevertheless, this is the first poll to give Ollanta a lead in the last couple of weeks, with the big live TV debate up tomorrow evening (that you out there in the world can watch of CNN's Spanish language service, CNN Expansion, so I understand).

It's going down to the wire, be in no doubt. By the way, separate from the normal IKN Weekly issue 108, subscribers will get a full report on the debate proceedings either late Sunday evening or before the bell Monday morning.

Problem 607: Intersecting Circles, Triangles, Metric Relations, Measurement

Geometry Problem
Click the figure below to see the complete problem 607.

 Problem 607: Intersecting Circles, Triangles, Metric Relations, Measurement.

Weekend Freebies

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Kaption Kompetition: The Winner

A couple of days ago we ran this caption competition post, featuring the wonderfulness of the DSK/POTUS/FLOTUS together in shot. And today the winner is called.

There were in total 56 entries (and a big thank you to all who took time to send in), which must be some kind of record round these parts. The judges (well...just me really, cos I like to be all despot dictator occasionally) had a lot on their plates, but eventually whittled them down to the following. So we'll do a reverse order podium medal thingy and start with...



BUT as Highlander so rightly pointed out THERE CAN BE ONLY ONE so it time for the roll on the drums, the smell of the crowd, the roar of the greasepaint and FIRST PLACE, THE WINNER, THE CHIKKIN DINNAH, OWNER OF THE GOLD MEDAL AND RECIPIENT OF THE U$50 PRIZE goes to PHILIP K with this entry:

Philip, you're breathtakingly good and I'm left in awe. A deserved win, sir.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Problem 606: Isosceles Triangles, Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

Geometry Problem
Click the figure below to see the complete problem 606.

 Problem 606: Isosceles Triangles, Perpendicular and Parallel Lines.

Peru Prez Poll Friday May 27th: IOP/PUCP (trustworthy) puts Keiko a tiny % ahead

This survey just came from IOP/PUCP, a pretty trustworthy source and notably the poll isn't attached to any Peru newspaper or media source. Here's the headline chart:

We got Keiko leading Ollanta again but this poll is WAY closer than recent ones from other companies...a real live too-close-to-call, with nine days to go. Sunday will see the final big crop of polls before the one week pre-election period when no polls can be published there. Then the vote, Sunday June 5th. Then they can all STFU...please.

The Friday OT: Talking Heads; Blind

The video which best sums up Peru's election campaign.

From the Heads' last album, the underrated 'Naked', and dedicated to reader 'JS' in NYC for sharing his David Byrne anecdote once upon a few months ago. I'm still way jealous, dude.

Puno this morning

A short note from local Puno media "Los Andes", linked here and translated by your humble scribe:

The panorama in the city of Puno is devastating at this time. Empty streets, closed markets, public buildings destroyed, the population nervous after the social protest yesterday descended into violence.
Public telephones have also been attacked and windows of private buildings such as hotels and restaurants have been smashed.

The customs and immigration office (Aduanas) in the city of Puno is destroyed, with damage wherever you look. Cars destroyed, doors broken, furniture borken and littered about the floor and warehouses broken into all through last night.

Police presence yesterday in the customs and immigration office was practically zero. It's not known what will happen in the next few hours in the city while the population is still covered in uncertainty.

Chart of the day is....

...gold these last five days, because without making screaming headlines it's done just fine and put in a good week.
And that's good.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

6pm in Puno Peru and a full scale pitched battle is underway between protesters and police

Things are not good in and around the main square of the city of Puno. Tear gas currently being used against the protesters, who in turn have raided/sacked government offices. Reports of buildings partly on fire as well. There's also a truck burning in the square, set on fire by the protesters.

In IKN106, May 15th, I wrote the following words. Sadly, I was right.
I’ve seen this movie before, ladies and gentlemen, it does not have a happy ending and no matter whether you approve or disapprove of the protesters, these people are quite willing to make this into a long-standing roadblock and aggravate authorities until troops are sent in and blood is shed

Update: Pleasant little evening bonfire...made from the furniture taken from the Puno tax office. H/T gabo_el

Sketchy reports of government workers being taken hostage, too. (Update on this...seemingly unfounded)

Now 7:30pm and reports of calm returning to the streets.

More pretty bonfires in the centre of Puno tonight

8:15pm Peru time (that's 9:15pm EST): Things are now worse, with reports that the local branch of the customs and immigration office (located just off the main square) is on fire, blazing away from many windows and on the way to near total destruction. Protesters have blocked the roads around the offices and won't let anyone through to put out the flames. Just down the road, reports are of looting in a electrical appliances store (white goods, etc)

It's Kaption Kompetition Time!

Main dude Setty found this over at the propublica blog and sent your humble servant the link. It's so but so very but very good that the only thing for it is to do A KAPTION KOMPETITION (insert multiple exclamation marks here):

So c'mon dudettes and dudes, get yer thinking caps on and tell us what Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Barry or 'Chelle (or combo of or all) are saying in this photo from 2009. Send in your best shot to.....

otto.rock1 AT gmail DOT com

...and we'll run the winner in 48 hours. As for a prize, your author gives the winner U$50 to the charity or good cause of choice (preferably by PayPal). Have at it, begad!

Bear Creek (BCM.v): Last night in Puno

This photo was taken at 4am this morning and the temperature at the time, I am reliably informed, was minus 6ºc. There were around 5000 people in this plaza and another 3000 in the plaza 300m away (also reliable info from eyewitnesses).

I'm amazed by the idiots up North that think this problem is going to go away and that BCM.v will get its permit to operate Santa Ana. Unimaginable depths of ignorance about South America on display by people with far more money than sense. Yeah I'm talking about you, dumbass Canadian equities analyst.

Rio Alto (RIO.v): Looks like Albino's call got its reaction

We put up the GMP report as part of this post yesterday. Since then, the stock has done this:

From $2.29 to $2.61, an upmove of 14%. George Albino must be pretty pleased with it all.

UPDATE: I'm sorry, did I say $2.61....?

Peru Prez Poll: Datum says Keiko stretching her lead

A new poll out today by Datum and published in Peru 21 has Keiko up half a point from last Sunday. Here's the chart that shows today's numbers (red) and last weekend's poll (grey).

Note that the Datum/Peru 21 combo is known to be anti-Humala in nature and more reasonable pollster Ipsos/Apoyo had Keiko's lead at under three points last weekend. With that said, the trend shown here can't be good for Humala. The latest Datum poll was taken on May 22nd, asked 1214 people on a national urban/rural basis and has a margin of error of +/- 2.8%. Data from here.

Chart of the day is....

...the US Dollar:

And now, get ready to have fun with your own personal fave goldbug tinfoilhat conspiracy theorist. Instructions as follows:

1) Approach tinfoilhat goldbug knucklehead of choice.
2) Point out to him/her that recently, when the dollar went up so did gold.
3) Point out to him/her that today the flipside is also true, the dollar is dropping and so is gold.
4) Remind your preferred target about all those time s/he told you about the massive financial conspiracy and how rocketing gold in the face of a plummeting dollar would save us all from the death spiral and all that jazz.
5) Finally, ask said goldbug to explain the current situation. For extra bonus fun, ask your goldbug to explain without using the following words/phrases: "Illuminati", "Sinclair", "Weimar", "Rothschild" "Vampire Squid", "Fiat currency", "Ron Paul".


Metoda Penambangan Bawah Tanah
Faktor2 Yg Mempengaruhi Pemilihan sistem TA Bwh Tnh:
1. Pjg Tebal dan lebar cebakan.
Berpengaruh utk menentuikan dimensi stope maksimum yaitu yg dikenal sbg minimum stoping width.
2. Kemiringan Cebakan
Menentukan kemungkinan memanfaatkan gravitasi dlm operasinya.
3. Kedalaman Operasi
Rock Failure mjd lebih memungkinkan pd kedalaman yg besar.
4. Faktor waktu
Berpengaruh pd strenght stress ratio pd exposed rock. Semakin lama waktu pilar berdiri mk ssr semakin turun
5. Kadar cebakan
Ceb kdr rendah perlu met produksi besar yg sering melupakan %tase recovery, ceb kdr tinggi memerlukan met yg menjamin recovery tinggi.
6. Fasilitas lokal yg meliput buruh dan material.
Biaya buruh mahal mk memerlukan met yg mpy mekanisme tinggi. Ketersediaan timber dan material filling juga berpengaruh.
7. Modal yg tersedia.
Modal kerja awal besar mk biaya operasi rendah. Perusahaan dgn modal kecil memerlukan development yg murah dan met yg cepat mendptkan hsl.
8. Batas dgn badan bijih lain.
Tk teg yg tinggi mungkin timbul pd pilar di perm kerja yg berdekatan mk diperlukan filling pd stope bekas penambangan utk mengurangi teg yg tinggi.
9. Strenght dan karakteristik phisik bijih dan batuan ddg atau material yg berada di atas bjh.
Berpengaruh pd kompetensi, amblesan, kemudahan pemboran, karakteristik breaking, cara handling, ventilasi dan pemompaan.
Karakteristik2 tsb termasuk:
Tipe batuan, tipe dan penyebaran alterasi, weaknesses seperti (perlapisan schistocity belahan min patahan jointing cavities dan spasi),weaknesses sepanjang ddg cebakan, kecenderungan min berharga menghasilkan rich fines atau mud, kecenderungan BO utk memadat/menggumpal, kecenderungan BO teroksidasi dan terbakar, Tewrjadinya swelling pd lantai, Abrasiveness, terdapatnya air porositas dan permeabilitas cebakan dan bat sekitarnya.
10. Biaya Penambangan
berkaitan dgn nilai bijih yg di TA, periode modal kerja bisa diperoleh kembali, tipe keahlian buruh yg tersedia.
11. Produktivitas
Dinyatakan dlm ton per manshift yaitu menyatakan kemampuan setiap tenaga kerja menghasilkan BO setiap gilir kerja.
12. Masalah Lingk
Keamblesan, berkurangnya hutan lokal utk penyanggaan, kualitas dumpsite dll.

Sistem2 Tambang Bawah Tanah:
Stope dgn penyanggaan alamiah:
-Open stope dgn underhand stoping
-Open stope dgn overhand stoping
-Open stope dgn breast stoping (room n pilar)
-Sublevel stoping
Stope dgn penyanggaan buatan:
-Cut n fill stoping
-Shringkage stoping
-Square-set stoping
-stull stoping
-longwall mining
-undercut n fill
-top sliocing
Metode caving:
-Sub level caving
-Block caving

Open stope alamiah:
-Cebakan dgn bijih dan dinding yg kuat, kecuali pd ceb yg tipis yg datar/ sedikit miring dimana dpt di TA dgn sist. mundur
-Penyangga brp bijih shg bijih tdk dpt diambil.
-Penambangan scr selektif
-Pd cebakan datar, dimungkinkan melakukan sortasi bijih di bwh tnh, sedang utk steep dip sortasi dilakukan scr terbatas
-Terbatas pd cebakan tabular dgn btk teratur, ddg batas jelas ttp bias juga utk cebakan besar, menggumpal, irregular.

Open Stope Underhand stoping
-End dgn tebal 3-4 m
-Dip 50 yg memungkinkan memanfaatkan gravitasi pd pemindahan broken ore (bo)
-Sbg met. tambahan utk menganbil badan bjh yg terpisah dr bdn bjh utama atau bag dr bdn bjh utama yg memberikan kondisi yg cocok.
-Hangingwall dan footwall kompeten utk mengurangi pemakaian ore pilar.
-Bjh boleh tdk kompeten krn akan mjd tempat berpijak pekerja.
-Unjuk pemboran baik.
-Perlu material penyanga sedikit
-Memanfaatkan grav untuk memindah broken ore
-Pemboran ke arah bawah
-Kehilangan bjh halus kdr tinggi < dibanding overhand stoping.-: -sorting sukar di dlm stope-Kondisi kerja berbahaya bg pekerja di back dan wall shg interval level hrs kecil-Fasilitas utk waste kecil-Broken Ore dr pemuka kerja dikeluarkan pd 1 ttk pengeluaran shg Output terbatas.Open Stope Overhand Stoping:Ap: 1,2,3,4 idem-Bijih kompeten-Pd urat dgn kemiringan besar >50 pekerja tdk bias berdiridi footwall shg perlu membuat platform utk berpijak
+ :
-Posisi back tdk bahaya krn penambangan mengikuti back shg interval level bisa > dibanding open stope underhand stoping
-Sorting sistematis
-Waste mudah ditumpuk pd daerah tambang
-Kondisi kerja aman, kondisi aplikasi elatis
-pd kemiringan yg kecil Bro ore jatuh pd haulage drive scr gravitasi
-Unjuk pemboran turun
-Dip > 45 diperlukan patform utk berpijak
-Material penyangga banyak
->kehilangan bjh uk hls kadar tinggi lebih besar

Open Stope Breast stoping (Stop N Pillar):
-Cebakan tdk bernilai tinggi yg mengijinkan sejumlah bijih ditinggal sbg pilar
-Ketebalan < 7m-Cebakan > 7 m mungkin ditambang ttp loss bjh dan atap runtuh semakin besar
-Dip 20-50:
horizon mining yaitu stope n pillar yg diterapkan utk cebakan mendatar/ hampir datar
inclined:20 –30, penambangan searah kemiringan dan tdk memungkinkan pemakaian mobile equipment
step mining: 30-50, penamabangan scr berurutan utk menghasilkan daerah kerja dgn kemiringan yg memungkinkan menggunakan mobile equipment.
-Batuan atap dan lantai kuat, utk meminimalkan pemakaian pilar
-Bijih hrs kuat utk mengurangi lebar pilar
-Kedalaman tdk terlalu besar utk mengurangi beban yg harus disangga pilar
-biaya rendah
-memungkinkan seleksi pd stope dan waste ditinggal pd ruang kosong
-memungkinkan melakukan mekanisasi dr drilling sampai loading dgn used trackless
-development cepat dan dev dilakukan pd bijih itu sendiri
-kehilangan bijih pd pilar sampai 40% jk dgn pilar robbing mjd 20%
-Bahaya runtuhan dr hanggingwall, dan bila hangingwall mpy joint dan crack yg sejajar memungkinkan runtuhan slab bat yg besar.
-Daerah ventilasi sangat luas.

Sublevel stoping:
Ap :
-dip 50-90 (steeply) yaitu kemiringan fw> drpd sudut gelincir broken ore
-hanging dan foot hrs kompeten
-bjh hrs kompeten
-bjh dgn batas penyebaran kadar merata
-bjh sulf memerlukan penanganan flotasi
-mengurangi drilling delay utk peledakan,scaling, mucking
-pemb scr kontinue pd development.
-Longhole driller dpt diledakan di seluruh stope utk memberi bro ore yg banyak.
-Aman dr kebakaran
-tdk mungkin melakukan sorting scr efektif
-blok bro ore besar bisa menyumbat grawpoints
-ventilasi susah
-rongga yang besar
-losses dan dilusi besar
-memerlukan periode yg lama sblm stope berprod

Stope dgn Penyangga Buatan

Cut and fill Stoping:
Ap :
-utk menggantikan sublevel stoping dan shrinkage stoping pd penambangan yg sangat dlm dimana teg bat mjd sangat besar.
-bb kompeten
-hanging dan foot boleh tdk kompeten mengingat mereka akan hampir scr lanmgsung disangga dgn material filling
-bjh dgn batas yg tdk teratur dan bjh yg discontinue, mk dilakukan penambangan pd bijih kadar tinggi dan meninggalkan bijih kadar rendah sbg filling
-utk mengambil pilar kadar tinggi
-dip <65 bisa menyebabkan dilusi+--met filling memberi tk selektifitas > tinggi dibanding shringkage dan sublevel stoping
-ventilasi mudah diatur
-dilusi seminimum mungkin
-ddg antara 2 stope yg berdekatan bias lebih tipis disbanding metode stoping yg lain
-stope fleksibel mengikuti ceb sempit kadar tinggi
-stope stabil krn ddg yg lemah disangga dgn waste filling
-memerlukan material filling mahal
-memerlukan buruh banyak utk menangani filling
-memerlukan banyak air utk pulp
-lebih mahal disbanding shrinkage dan sublevel stoping
-semen dan psr halus utk filling bias menyumbat pompa/pipa
-output dr stope terbatas krn adanya kegiatan filling

Keuntungan Sublevel thd sringkage:
-resiko kebakaran < pd penambangan cebakan sulfida-konsumsi bhn peledak< krn bijih lepas akan lebih terdisintegrasi pd saat bergerak dlm stope-kondisi penerapan sublevel stoping lebih fleksibel-sarana memasuki pemuka kerja lebih mudah-pekerja sedikit, pemboran efisien dgn longhole drill.Shringkage:Ap :- ideal utk dip 50-90 (steeply) yg > dr sudut gelincir broken ore
-urat sempit –lebar
-bb dgn btk teratur utk menghindari dilusi dan losses
-ketebalan bijih >5m
-hanging dan foot ddg stabil, shg tdk terjadi crushing dan spaling bila bro ore diambil
-utk bro ore yg tdk menggumpal
-bjh hrs kuat, shg penyanggaan pd atap bias seminimal mungkin
-kadar sebaiknya seragam, krn tdk memungkinkan sorting
-biaya development rendah
-timber sangat sedikit
-biaya ventilasi murah
-sederhana dan mudah dikerjakan
-development cepat shg recovery bijih juga cepat
-blok berukuran besar dpt dibedakan dlm stope
-pekerja dpt bekerja di stope
- :
-selalu tjd runtuhan waste dr ddg shg tjd dilusi
-sukar utk menambang offshot
-bjh ditinggal dlm stope ckp lama, shg investasi tdk segera kembali
-syarat ketat dan hanya cocok utk bjh ttu
-kon lantai kurang nyaman utk pergerakan para pekerja dan peralatan
-bb pd wasterock tdk dpt ditambang
-stope perlu di filling agar tdk runtuh
-kon kerja berbahaya khususnya pd saat penarikan bro ore

Shringkage thd sub level stoping:
-development lebih sedikit
-memperoleh kontak dgn ddg cebakan lebih baik shg memungkinkan memperoleh semua bjh dlm stope.
-ddg penggalian setiap saat disangga dgn bjh lepas shg dilusi sedikit
-bjh dpt dihancurkan lebih kecil dlm stope
-met ini dpt diterapkan thd bat lebih lemah disbanding sub level stoping

Square Set Stoping
-dahulu banyak diaplikasi skr sudah digantikan dgn met caving dan cut n fill
-cebakan bjh nilai tinggi dimana ekstraksi yg sempurna lebih penting disbanding biaya penambangan
-cebakan dgn ketebalan>3m
-pd ceb yg tdk kompeten, stope perlu penyanggaan dgn timbering
-ceb dgn kondisi structural yg berubah ubah yg mpy offshoots dan kantong2 dgn batas yg tdk teratur
-ceb yg belum diketahui atau sangat sedikit diketahui ttg karakter batuannya
-ceb bjh suphide yg dpt teroksidasi
-utk mengambil pilar yg terletak diantara 2 stope
-ekstraksi tinggi
-dpt diterapkan utk menambang pd sembarang kon batuan
-bias disangga scr menyeluruh
-ventilasi mudah
-aman dr kebakaran pd penambangan bijih sulphide
-fleksibel, arah kemajuan stope dpt diatur mengikuti arah penyebaran bijih
-bias diaplikasikan pd semua kon batuan
-biaya pekerja dan material tinggi
-mekanisme scr penuh tdk memungkinkan
-bhy kebakaran dr timber
-ekstraksi lambat
-pembusukan kayu bisa menyulitkan ventilasi
-seringkali need material filling

Stull stoping
-bb dgn Ketebalan < 5-7 m-bb dgn Dip 50-90 yg memungkinkan pemanfaatan g-Bjh<45 need slusher utk mengambil bro ore-Bjh kdr tinggi need recovery tinggi dibanding biaya penambangan-Sbg alternatif met cut and fill bila material filling tdk ada/bila tersedia timber murah-Bat ddg kompeten, shg rongga bekas penambangan tdk perlu difilling+ :-bjh dpt disortir dlm stope dan waste ditinggalkan dlm stope-dpt digunakan utk menambang bjh dgn bts tdk jelas-reletif memberi kon kerja aman-dpt diubah mjd met lain mis: cut and fill - :-memerlukan penyanggaan timber yg banyak-dlm jk lama kekuatan timber berkurang shg stope runtuh-labour intensive dan susah memperoleh buruh terampilLongwall:Ap:-ceb tipis 2m, dgn ketebalan merata dan lapisan penyebaran mendatar-kon bat kompeten (ta emas di afsel) atau inkompeten (ta bb) krn daerah kerja akan disangga-dip<30 +:-ekstraksi (recovery) tinggi-produksi cepat, modal balik cepat-development sederhana hanya system haulage unit - :-headroom rendah, kadang memerlukan unit2 yg digerakan scr manual-produksi rendah-bhy ambrukan atap-penyanggaan sistematis-hanya bias diterapkan utk lapisan bjh tipis ( 2m)Undercut n fill:Ap:-sbg met utk menambang rib pilar-sbg met utk menambang Crown pilar-Utk operasi dimana kon bat jelek-Utk setiap kon dimana bat diatas penggalian tdk dijamin karakteristiknya dgn pasti +:-sangat sedikit keuntungannya, mrpkn pilihan terakhir utk mprlh bjh dgn nilai ek tinggi -:-biaya mahal -eff rendah-material sangat banyak.Top slicing:Ap:-Bjh mpy capping lemah yg segera runtuh apabila penyangga dibawahnya dihancurkan-Ddg lemah/kuat. Hw yg lemah sangat cocok utk top slicing krn hw yg kuat akan gagal membtk runtuhan yg sempurna-tersedia pasokan timber yg ckp n murah-diijinkan tjd amblesan dan runtuhan di perm tanah-mengambil pilar diantara stope pd badly broken ground shg tdk mungkin dgn overhand+:-met aman utk heavy ground-ekonomis khususnya apabila timber tersedia dgn harga murah-ekstraksi tinggi dan tdk terjadi dilusi dr capping dan walls (scr teoritis)-aman khusus apabila pengawasan dilakukan memadai-apbl kondisi pasar tdk memungkinkan penambangan dilanjutkan mk stope atau slice dpt diledakan shg bb tetap dlm kon baik-setelah development selesai mk penambangan dpt dilaksanakan dgn biaya dev headingnya pd top slicing sekitar 20 % dr biaya penambangan.-:-biaya tinggi jk timber dan lagging mahal-lebih mahal drpd met lain yg dpt diterapkan utk kondisi yg sama-tdk cocok utk kon perm yg tdk diperkenankan tjd amblesan-ventilasi sulit-akumulasi timber menyebabkan fire-utk mendptkan output besar mk memerlukan working place-periode development sebelum diperoleh prod relatif lama.-proses timbering dan peruntuhannya lama shg menguragi waktu utk breaking dan mucking-dev relatif lama-pengangkutan timber, lagging perlu biaya mahal-proses runtuhnya capping dan timber mat diatas slice tdk lancar dan mbtk rongga shg dpt menyebabkan runtuhan dgn massa yg besar-tdk mungkin dilakukan sorting thd waste pd stope atau tidak memungkinkan meninggalkan barren rock di stope.Metode CavingSublevel caving:Ap:-Ideal utk bb yg besar dan kompeten-Bb sempit dgn dip 50-90 dan mpy dimensi vertical yg besar-pemahaman thd sublevel caving lebih baik, memungkinkan mengganti met cut and fill-cocok utk bb sgl kedalaman dimana tdk tegantung pd ddg bat kompeten-tjd runtuhan yg menerus pd hangingwal selama proses pengambilan bijih-utk kondisi yg memungkinkan tjd dilusi dgn waste dan losses-cocok utk min dimana min berharga dan waste rock bias scr mudah dipisahkan+:-mekanisasi mudah-tdk ada pilar yg ditinggalkan-operasi dgn prod yg besar-memungkinkan seleksi pd bjh dgn berbagai kadar-development dilakukan pd bijih itu sendiri -ekonomis dan aman utk bat inkompeten-development opening tdk hrs dipertahankan terus menerus-kecenderungan caving pd ddg akan membantu pengecilan bro ore-:-dilusi tinggi, semakin tinggi dilusi yg diperkenankan mk semakin tinggi recovery.-penambangan tdk terkonsentrasi dan pengawasan sulitBlock caving:Ap:-utk urat yg lebar dan lap tebal, ceb massive yg homogen yg terletak dibwh overburden bersifat segera runtuh-bat penutup mpy sifat runtuh-bjh bersifat kuat saat berlangsung dev dan segera runtuh bila undercut diledakan-daerah bjh relatif kering utk menghindari terbentuknya Lumpur yg akan mempersulit kontrol penarikan bijih-diperlukan kadar yg terdistribusi cukup seragam, mengingat block caving bersifat tdk selektif-ceb porphyry copper yg mpy bijih dan capping yg lemah.+:-biaya penambangan rendah-output tinggi 10000-100000 ton/hari-bersifat mekanisasi shg buruh sdkt-timber sdkt shg mengurangi bhy fire-prod terkonsentrasi shg pengawasan mudah-memungkinkan ventilasi natural dgn baik-kecelakaan ta rendah-:modal relatif besar dan periode waktu sebelum ta berprod cukup lama-tjd dilution bjh dgn waste-bjh kdr rendah pd capping dan pd bts bb akan hilang-tdk fleksibel, tdk dpt diubah ke met lainPemilihan Metode Scr NumerikParameter yg digunakan:1.geometri dan distribusi kadar cebakan2.kekuatan massa batuan utk daerah bijih, hangingwall dan footwall3.biaya penambangan dan modal yg dibutuhkan4.laju penambangan5.tipe kemampuan buruh/ tenaga kerja6.masalah lingkungan7.pertimbangan2 khusus lainnyaData Yg diperlukan1. GeologiInterpretasi geologi mrpkn bag penting dlm evaluasi min. Dr interpretasi tsb dpt dibuat peta2 penampang dan potongan geologi yg dpt menunjukan tipe bat utama, zona alterasi, urat, sumbu lipatan dll.2. Geometri Cebakan dan Distribusi KadarDr interpretasi geologi dpt ditetapkan geometri dan distribusi kadar. Geometri ceb dinyatakan dlm:-Bentuk : dimensi teratur, lembaran-tabung, tak beraturan.-Ketebalan bijih : tipis, sedang, tebal, sangat tebal-Penunjaman : datar, sedang, curam-Kedalaman bijih-Distribusi kadar : seragam, bertahap, tak menentu3.Karakteristik Mek-BatMeliputi :-Kekuatan batuan intack : mrpkn nisbah kuat tekan uniaxial thd tek tanah penutup.-Spasi rekahan : ditentukan berdasarkan banyaknya pecahan per meter atau RQD (rock Quality Designation).RQD adl jml pjg semua potongan inti yg > atau sama dgn 2 kali diameter inti, dibagi dengan total pjg pemboran.
-Kuat geser pecahan (lemah, sedang, kuat)

Langkah2 Pemilihan Met TA scr Numerik :
1. Menentukan karakteristik geometri dan distribusi kadar berdasarkan table 4.1 dan karakteristik mek bat berdsrkan table 4.2
2. Menetapkan nilai numeric utk setiap karakteristik geometri dan distribusi kadar dgn menggunakan table 4.3
3. Menetapkan nilai numeric setiap karakteristik mek-bat utk daerah bjh (table 4.4.a), daerah HW (table 4.4.b), Daerah FW (table 4.4.c)
4. Menjumlahkan nilai numeric dr karekteristik geometri dan distribusi kadar, karakteristik mek bat daerah bijih, daerah HW dan daerah FW.
5. Menyusun ranking met penambangan berdsrkan besar nilai numeriknya.


1. Pengertian Eksplorasi
Perbedaan definisi terletak pada masuk dan tidaknya kegiatan prospeksi dalam eksplorasi.
Kelompok I (Mc Kinstry HE dan Alan M) memasukan prospeksi dalam eksplorasi.
Mc Kinstry HE : suatu kegiatan yg meliputi keseluruhan urutan pekerjaan mulai dari pencarian suatu prospect sampai evaluasi dari prospect tersebut dan memperluas lokasi lain disekitar daerah yang telah dilakukan kegiatan penambangan.
Alan M : kegiatan yg bertujuan akhir adalah penemuan geologisnya berupa endapan mineral yang bernilai ekonomis.
Kelompok II ( Peel dan WC Petters) tdk memasukan prospeksi dlm eksplorasi.
Peel dan WC petters : kegiatan yg dilakukan setelah prospeksi /setelah endapan bhn galian tsb ditemukan dan bertujuan mengetahui ukuran, bentuk, kedudukan, sifat dan nilai dari endapan bhn galian tsb.

2. Tahap Eksplorasi
A. Tahap Persiapan
1. Penentuan Tujuan :
-Eksplorasi pendahuluan/prospeksi atau eksplorasi detil
-End bhn gal/ end bijih yg dicari
-Untuk inventarisasi, konstruksi, penambangan atau maksud lain
2. Meneliti literatur :
-peta dan citra yg tersedia : peta dasar, p geologi, p Topografi, orthophoto, foto udara, citra satelit
-analisis regional dlm btk sejarah, struktur/tektonik dan morfologi
-laporan penyelidikan terdahulu
-teori2 dan metoda2 lapangan yg ada
-keadaan geografi
-sosbud, adat

3. Metode Eksplorasi
a. Cara tidak langsung
-Foto Udara dan citra satelit
-Geofisika : Magnetik, Gravitasi, Seismik (refraksi/refleksi), listrik (polarisasi Induksi/IP, potensial diri / SP, Geolistrik, Telluric Current, Electromagnetik)
-Geokimia : Bedrock, soil, air, vegetasi, stream sedimen
b. Cara langsung
-Permukaan : pemetaan langsung, penyelidikan singkapan (outcrop), penjajakan float (tracing float), pembuatan parit uji (trenching), pembuatan sumur uji (test pitting)
-bawah tanah : Pemboran inti (drilling), adit test dan shaft shingking (pembuatan shaft).
4. Peralatan
tergantung pd metode yg dipilih berdasarkan pertimbangan alat yg tersedia, keadaan lapangan, biaya dan waktu
5. Anggota tim
terdiri : geologist, explorer, gheophusist, geochemist, operator alat
6. Biaya
7. Waktu
8. perbekalan : peta dasar, alat ukur, alat kerja (perl geofisika, perl sampling, palu, altimeter, peral pemboran, kompas, meteran), alat tulis, alat komunikasi, obat2an
9. jalur eksplorasi
10 Perijinan

B. Tahap Kerja Lapangan
1. Observasi lapangan
bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran praktis mengenai kondisi dan keadaan lapangan.
2. Pemetaan
bermanfaat utk mengetahui topografi setempat, situasi bentangan, kemiringan lereng awal, perhitungan cadangan.
3. Pengambilan conto
4. Pengambilan data geologi

C. Tahap Pengolahan Data
D. Tahap Pelaporan

4. Pengambilan Conto
suatu proses pengambilan sejumlah kecil dari populasi (gas, cairan, padatan, tumbuhan) yg mewakili sifat fisik dan kimia secara keseluruhan populasi tersebut.
Pengambilan conto perlu dilakukan krn bhn galian mempunyai sifat fisik dan kimia tertentu, mempunyai mineral penyusun bermacam macam, komposisi dan kadar yg tidak sama.
Tujuan :
Menentukan ada tidaknya endapan bahan galian atau menentukan bentuk, kadar dan kedudukan di perm bumi.

Komp Utama (spero carras):
1. Komp statik : komp yg berhub dgn angka dr suatu pengambilan conto dan individu massanya
2. Komp Geologi : berhub dgn orientasi dan jml pengambilan conto
3. Komp fisik :
a. Proses fisik pd pengambilan conto, preparasi conto, instrumen dan metode yg digunakan.
b. Sifat fisik dari populasi yg akan diambil contonya.
4. Komp Kimia : berhub dgn proses kimia pd pengujian akhir suatu conto.

A. Metode pengambilan conto
1. Channel sampling : cara konvensional yg dilakukan pd sumur uji, drits, cross cut, rise dan shaft.
2. Chip sampling : pengambilan conto pd bat yg tersingkap
3. Broken ore sampling : pengambilan conto pd sekumpulan batuan yg telah terpisah dr batuan induknya scr manual/mekanis
4. Grab Sampling : sama dengan broken ore tetapi dilakukan apabila broken ore telah diluar stope/ di atas alat angkut.
5. Bulk Sampling: pengambilan conto dr conto yg sudah ada
6. Core Sampling dan cutting

Kategori conto :
-Rock sampling
-Soil sampling
-Stream sediment sampling
-Placer sampling
-water sampling
-vegetasi sampling
-vapor sampling

B. Pola Pengambilan Conto
1.Bujur sangkar
2.empat persegi panjang
3. segitiga
4. rhomboid

C. Konsep daerah Pengaruh
Hanya untuk conto berupa material dan batuan (air, gas dan tanaman tdk berlaku)
Penarikan grs bts pd prinsipnya grs tsb memotong sama panjang scr tegaklurus thd grs antara 2 ttk pengambilan conto. Daerah pengaruh dibatasi oleh garis yg terletak di antara 2 ttk pengambilan conto dan grs penghubung antara 2 ttk pengambilan conto. Artinya bhw ttk potong tsb tdk melebihi grs penghubung antara 2 ttk pengambilan conto.
Jk hal ini tjd mk ttk potong tsb tdk digunakan sbg batas ttp grs penghubung antara 2 ttk pengambilan conto yg digunakan sbg batas.

Penentuan daerah pengaruh untuk conto dikategorikan dlm bentuk garis berbeda dgn btk ttk.
Daerah pengaruh conto berbtk ttk berpedoman pd grs berat yaitu garis tegak lurus yg membagi 2 dgn jarak yg sama antara 2 ttk terdekat.
Daerah pengaruh conto berbentuk grs berpedoman pd grs bagi yaitu grs yg membagi sudut sama besarnya dan seringkali juga disebut sebagai pedoman gravitasi.

D. Peralatan Pengambilan conto
1. Rotary drilling : auger drill, conve4ntional auger drill, dry stick auger drill. Hallow auger drill, conventional rotary drill
2. Bucket Drill
3. churn Drill
4. Percussion drill
5. Diamond drill
6. Vacuum drill
7. bangka bor
8. jet drill

5. Preparasi Conto

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Nicaragua polling for the 2011 Presidential election

Out just a few minutes ago is the Cid/Gallup Latinoamérica voter intention poll for Nicaragua's Presidential election, due to happen November 6th this year. Here's the chart...

...and incumbent Daniel Ortega is ahead. Second place ten points behind is radio station owner (hmm...that might be useful in the campaign) and congress member Fabio Gadea. Third comes ex Prez Arnoldo Alemán, who did the job between 1997 and 2002 and for some reason wants to do it again and the rest are noise. Data from here.

Rio Alto (RIO.v): GMP's George Albino puts a $5.75 price target on RIO.v

Not so often that you get a Canadian brokerage analyst sticking such a high upside target on a gold stock, but that's what happened today with George Albino of GMP (along with associate Matthew Sheppard). The stock is Rio Alto Mining (RIO.v) (disclosure, your humble scribe is long RIO.v so generally agrees with the call) and Albino says it's going to $5.75, which represents an upside of 151% to the $2.29 of right here right now.

You can read the whole analysis note by clicking here and downloading your copy, but here's the front page blurb to get you in the mood. DYODD, dudettes and dudes.

Home Team Advantage at La Arena

Rio Alto’s key asset is the La Arena gold/gold-copper project in northern Peru – it is located in a highly mineralized area which includes Barrick’s 1mm oz/yr Lagunas Norte mine - Rio purchased the property from IAMGold.
We believe that RIO, as a brand new producer, represents a de-risked development story trading at early development-stage multiples. In our view the company’s current market valuation is supported by the base case oxide dump leach project (which poured its first gold on May 6).

We see 3 principal sources of upside - the potential for significantly higher grades in the oxide deposit, development of the deeper copper-gold project and the significant exploration targets elsewhere on the La Arena.

La Arena – already producing with tonnes of porphyry potential

La Arena is located in northern Peru - infrastructure is outstanding and the mine lies immediately on a (mainly) paved road that links the mining town of Huamachuco. A major power line crosses the mine property within a few kilometers of the La Arena pit – there is sufficient capacity on this line with low (probably <$0.06/kwh) costs.

At the 24k tpd rate and at the average reserve grade of 0.44g/t, gold production is expected to average 100k oz/yr. Production guidance for calendar 2011 is for 75k oz. LOM production, based on current reserves, is projected at 640k oz.

Past work by Rio Alto suggests that grades obtained by diamond drilling may significantly understate actual in situ gold grade. During the early years of production at its nearby Lagunas Norte mine, Barrick indicated that actual mining grades were often significantly higher than reserve grade.

The porphyry copper-gold deposit provides, in our view, most of the value at La Arena. The company expects to complete a feasibility study by year-end 2012, and anticipates production beginning in 2015. The PFS study by Coffey Mining examined a 24k tpd project that is expected to cost approximately $300mm to build and would give annual production of 60m lb/yr copper and 31k oz/yr gold over 21 years mining a 180m tonne deposit with an extremely low 1.1:1 stripping ratio.

We reiterate that, in our opinion, the oxide project alone supports the current market cap of the company and that the real driver of the share price is in the copper-gold project. We also believe the election in Peru will end speculation on the potential impact of a socialist incumbent. We initiate coverage of Rio Alto with a BUY rating and a $C5.75 target price representing 75% of our NAV6% using GMP commodity prices.


IFRS accounting: Learn all there is to learn right here

The changeover to the new IFRS accounting standards has caused plenty of question marks in the investment community, especially (according to my mailbox at least) in the junior and exploration mining sector. This humble corner of cyberspace therefore recommends that you click on the following link and get your absolutely free and no-strings attached copy of the PDF offered up by EPICOR entitled "Smooth transition: Preparing for IFRS" that will tell you all you need to know about the subject. This is useful source material for anyone that has so far been confused about the changes in accounting procedures and reporting, so get yours today. Here's the blurb:
Smooth Transition: Preparing for IFRS
"Smooth Transition: Preparing for IFRS"
Find out everything you need to know about International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) format. 
The SEC proposes that 2014 be the first year for US registered companies to file their financial statements in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) format. This executive brief covers how to effectively manage this upcoming transition to IFRS. You will learn how to form the IFRS transition team, set the roles of the IFRS project team members and use your Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software to manage this transition. 
Offered Free by: Epicor Software Corporation 

Other Resources from: Epicor Software Corporation

A Flash update...

...went out to subscribers about 15 minutes ago, a hour before the opening bell, containing news'n'views on three stocks we're watching closely in these heady days, plus confirmation that yesterday's purchases happened. Your humble scribe hopes that the info contained is useful.

Chart of the day is....

...the forex market for the Peruvian Nuevo Sol (PEN) versus the US Dollar (USD):

They might have had a bit of a scare back there in March and April, but these days the forex jocks are pretty darned certain that Keiko wins, are they not?

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Oil and the children of Bolivar

Now here's a story that hasn't been given much air time in English language media....yet.
But that might just change....soon
And become...very big.

It all depends...on Hugo (cue bwahahahah laughing sounds and spooky music).

Go to Setty's Notebook here and here to get a concise and nice rundown of the sanctions imposed today on Venezuela by the USA. For sure they're not very strong sanctions but, as Setty rightly says, "Basically, weak sanctions. But still, US sanctions on Venezuela. Expect fireworks."

And indeed, it sure looks like Hugo & Co. aren't going to take this lying down. Oil Minister Rafael Ramirez is appearing on live TV right now and he's already said that although Venezuela won't cut oil supplies to Citgo, it may cut sales to other outlets in the USA. And as for Hugo himself, here's a link to the tweet he put out less than an hour ago (as your humble scribe writes), the translation of which is:

 "Sanctions against Bolivar's Fatherland? Imposed by the imperialist gringo government? 
Well, they're welcome, Mr. Obama! Don't forget that we are the children of Bolivar!"

We've had the right wing in the US calling for sanctions against Venezuela for the longest time and Dubya never took the bait. But here we are with the USA under a CommieLefty President and the far right have got what they wanted all this time. Meanwhile, your author has that old refrain going round his head of "Careful what you wish for....."

UPDATE: This just out of the Venezuelan Embassy  in the USA

Venezuela Rejects U.S. Sanctions Against PDVSA

Published: 05/24/2011 
The Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has learned of the decision announced by the Department of State of the United States  to impose sanctions against our oil national company, Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), as part of a unilateral law targeting the Islamic Republic of Iran known as CISADA.
The Bolivarian Government expresses its strongest rejection to this decision since it constitutes a hostile action on the fringes of international law that violates the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and its revolution have a strong, independent and sovereign oil industry able to operate and permanently fulfill its commitments. Faced with this aggression, Venezuela further ratifies its oil independence and sovereignty.
The Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is undertaking a general assessment of the situation to determine how these sanctions affect the operational capacity of our oil industry and, therefore, the supply of 1.2 million barrels of oil per day to the U.S.  Pending this assessment, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela reserves itself the most adequate answer to this imperialist aggression.
The revolutionary Government calls on all the Venezuelan people, laborers and especially the oil workers, to stay alert and mobilized in defense of our PDVSA and the sacred sovereignty of the homeland.
Caracas, May 24, 2011
Ministry of People’s Power for Foreign Affairs

Geometry skills are innate, Mundurucu Amazon tribe study

Tests given to an Amazonian tribe called the Mundurucu suggest that our intuitions about geometry are innate.

Click the figure below to see the ilustration.

Geometry skills are innate, Mundurucu Amazon tribe study.

Feel free to mail me about any subject, as I do enjoy a good discussion

But first, read this. Via Critical Thinkers and Kid Dynamite (h/t to both)